IP, Investment Arbitration and Policy Justifications

Guest post by Ivan Stepanov*

International investment agreements (IIAs) are international treaties which protect investors coming from one state and their investment in another. They represent the source of what is called international investment law. IIAs have endemic protection standards with the protection against expropriation and the “fair and equitable treatment” (FET) standard being most prominent.

Even though IIAs are instruments of public international law, the dispute settlement mechanism embedded in the treaties offers the investor, a private party, to challenge the state, if it holds that through state action, it or its investment have suffered economic losses. The actions of the state are then assessed in light of the aforementioned protection standards. This mechanism is called the investor-state dispute settlement or more commonly addressed as investment arbitration. Essentially through investment arbitration an investor has the chance to sue the state in an international forum inside a specific legal environment. Continue reading “IP, Investment Arbitration and Policy Justifications”

When Supermodels Meet Competition Law


Who said competition law is always about the same old markets?

Last November the Italian Competition Authority dealt with something other than pharmaceutical or telecommunication, as it found that 8 major model agencies set up a price-cartel. The investigation had been opened upon submission of a leniency application by the renowned agency IMG and led to a cumulative fine of 4.5 million euro. The other agencies found liable were Brave, D’management, Elite Model, Management, Enjoy, Major Model Management, Next Italy, Why Not and Women Models. Continue reading “When Supermodels Meet Competition Law”