The IP High Court in Japan has considered book scanning services to amount to copyright infringement. The judgment became final in March this year because the Supreme Court dismissed the appeal by the service provider. On 30th November, the police in Kyoto arrested a book scanning service provider, who scanned popular Japanese manga comics in response to its clients’ request. This is the first criminal case and could largely affect similar businesses in Japan. In this posting, I would like to briefly explain the reasoning of the IP High Court.